Textile Dictionary

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A latch-needle weft-knitting machine with two needlebeds at a 90° angle to each other in the form of an inverted V. Each needlebed is at a 45° angle to the horizontal. These machines are used primarily to produce collars, sleeves, sweater strips, and rib trims.

A manufactured fiber modified in polymer configuration or by additive during manufacture, resulting in a change in the properties of the fiber. Examples are flame-retardant variants, deep-dyeing variants, high-tenacity variants, low-pilling variants, and cotton-blending or wool-blending variants.


Manufactured fiber spun from Celanese Vectra® liquid crystal polymer. These fibers have high-temperature resistance, high strength and modulus, and high resistance to moisture and chemicals, with good property retention in hostile environments. They are used as matrix fibers for advanced composites and as reinforcing fibers in advanced composites, ropes and cables, and in electronics applications.

A textile fiber of vegetable origin, such as cotton, kapok, jute, ramie, and flax.

  1. Generally, a soft, closely woven fabric with a short, thick pile, weighting about 10 to 20 ounces per yard and made in a plain or satin weave. Velour is usually made of cotton or wool, or with a cotton warp in wool, silk, or mohair velour. It is also made in blends of spun manufactured fiber and wool. Velours are used for coats, draperies, upholstery, powder puffs, and other pile items.
  2. A felt with velvet-like texture used for men’s and women’s hats.

A woven carpet in which the pile ends are lifted over wires that are inserted in the same manner as the filling and that cut the pile as they are withdrawn.

A warp-pile woven fabric with short, dense cut pile that produces a rich fabric appearance and soft texture. Two methods are used for weaving velvets. In the double-cloth method, two fabrics are woven face to face with the pile ends interlocking. A reciprocating knife cuts through these pile ends to produce two separate pieces of velvet. In the second method, pile ends are lifted over cutting wires that are inserted with the filling and that are withdrawn to cut the pile. Velvet is produced in a wide range of constructions and types. Originally made of silk, but now also of cotton or manufactured fibers giving fabrics that are sometimes washable. The fabric can be specially finished to make it crush-resistant and water-repellent or it may be embossed or patterned by
burn-out printing.

A fabric with a low filling pile made by cutting an extra set of filling yarns woven in a float formation and bound to the back of the material at intervals by weaving over and under one or more warp ends


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