Textile Dictionary

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A measure of the liquid or water-holding capacity of a textile material.

Recoverable deformation that is essentially independent of time, i.e., occurring in (a time approaching) zero time and recoverable in (a time approaching) zero time after removal of the applied load.

  1. The resistance of a material to fracture by a blow, expressed in terms of the amount of energy absorbed before fracture.
  2. In yarn or cord, the ability to withstand instantaneous or rapid rate of loading.


A fabric in which the interstices between the yarns are completely filled, as compared to sized or coated material where the interstices are not completely filled. Not included in the definition is a woven fabric constructed from impregnated yarns, rather than one impregnated after weaving.

Ratio of the velocity of light in one medium to its velocity in a second medium as the light passes from medium to medium. If a medium is crystalline, the velocity may depend on the direction of the light with respect to the crystalline axes and the substance may have several indexes of refraction, i.e., it may be birefringent. (Also see BIREFRINGENCE.)

Originally, a natural blue vat dye extracted from plants, especially the Indigofera tinctoria plant. Most indigo dyes today are synthetic. They are frequently used on dungarees and denims.

A broad term for fabrics used for nonapparel and nondecorative uses. They fall into several classes:

(1) a broad group including fabrics employed in industrial processes (e.g., filtering, polishing, and absorption),

(2) fabrics combined with other materials to produce a different type of product (e.g., rubberized fabric for hose, belting, and tires; fabric combined with synthetic resins to be used for timing gears and electrical machinery parts; coated or enameled fabrics for automobile tops and book bindings; and fabrics impregnated with adhesive and dielectric compounds for application in the electrical industry), and

(3) fabrics incorporated directly in a finished product (e.g., sails, tarpaulins, tents, awnings, and specialty belts for  agricultural machinery, airplanes, and conveyors). Fabrics developed for industrial uses cover a wide variety of widths, weights, and constructions and are attained, in many cases, only after painstaking research and experiment. Cotton and manufactured fibers are important fibers in this group, but virtually all textile fibers have industrial uses. The names mechanical fabrics or technical fabrics sometimes have been applied to certain industrial fabrics.

Structures opened or enlarged by input of air and, once enlarged, able to retain the air to maintain the distended position.

Cooling air for extruded polymer filaments that is directed radially inward across the path of the filaments. The threadline is completely enclosed in a quench cabinet in inflow quenching.

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