Weaving Preparation

Quality of Good Warping - requirements

GMT 08:04 2015 Thursday ,14 May

Sriyadithatextile - Quality of Good Warping - requirements

Warping process - Preparation for weaving


Weaving is the action of producing fabric by the interlacing of warp and weft thread.  The warp threads are placed along the length of the fabric and the weft threads are placed along the width of the fabric.

Example of Different Textile-

Geo-Textile:   Embankment

Medical Textile:  Non-alginate fabric, Bandage tape etc.

Non-woven Fabric: Tea bag, Tissue paper.

House Hold Textile: Curtain, Cover of soffa set.

Type of Fabrics:

  1. Woven fabric (Shirt)
  2. Knitted fabric (T-shirt)
  3. Non-woven fabric (Tea pack)
  4. Special fabric (Fire proof fabric, water proof fabric)


Yarn preparation is important to facilitate the next processes of weaving. The objects of yarn preparation are mentioned bellow:

  • To remove yarn faults ( there are 23 types of yarn faults)
  • To transfer the yarn from spinner’s package to a convenient form of package which will facilitate weaving.
  • To have desired length of yarn on a package.
  • To clean the yarn for better appearance and performance.
  • To make good quality fabric.
  • To reduce labour cost.


  1. Thick place
  2. Thin place
  3. Slubs Place
  4. Loose fibers
  5. Count variation
  6. Foreign particles (seed, leaf, dust, bollworm, honeydew)
  7. Neps


The essential features of good warp is mentioned bellow-

  • The yarn must be uniform, clean and free from knots as much as possible.
  • The yarn must be sufficiently strong with withstand the stress and friction without end breakage.
  • Knots should be a standard size and type. So that they can pass the heald eye, dropper, read easily.
  • The warp must be uniformly sized and size coating should be thick enough to protect the yarn various function.
  • The ends of warp must be parallel and each must be wound onto a weaver’s beam at an even and equal tension.
  • All warp yarn should of same size in length.

 TYPES OF FEED PACKAGE                          

  • Cone (for warp yarn)
  • Cheese (for warp yarn)
  • Spool (for silk, jute warp yarn)
  • Flanged bobbin (for warp yarn)
  • Cop (for jute weft)
  • Pirn (for cotton weft)
  • Spinner package

Warping is a part of total number of ends of a warp in full width on to a back beam from cone or cheese is known as warping.


  • To prepare a beam to make a fabric.
  • To increase the wave ability of fabric.
  • To make a convenient yarn sheet for sizing.
  • To wound up required length of yarn onto a warp beam.
  • To facilate the weaving of complex color pattern.
  • To make reusable small packages


During warping the following requirements should be fulfilled.

The tension of all wound end must be uniform and possibly constant throughout the withdrwal process.

  1. Warping should not impair the physical and mechanical properties of yarn.
  2. The surface of warping package must be cylindrical.
  3. A pre-determined length of yarn should be wound on beam from every package.
  4. The production rate of warping should be as high as possible.
  5. If possible, yarn faults should be removed.


Mainly there are two types of warping,

a) Direct/ high speed warping

b) Sectional warping.

Some Other Special Types of Warping Are Available 

a) Ball warping

b) Chain warping

c) Cross warping


Sectional warping is a process of preparing warp beam over two stages. In first stage yarns are wound in narrow tapes on a large drum. Then in the second stage the rewinding of the warp onto a beam is performed. This process is slow but suitable for complex color pattern.


High speed warping is a process of preparing warp beam directly from yarn package. Here all the yarns are wound on a simple flange beam at a time. This process is suitable for single color pattern.


  • Sectional warping is suitable for producing color fabrics with different pattern.
  • Production is less in sectional warping. So it is a costly process.
  • In sectional warping, tension cannot be kept uniform.
  • Here tapered drum is used as drum.
  • Hand weaving is necessary to produce sample fabric for bulk production.


  • High speed warping is suitable for producing fabric with same count and same color yarn.
  • Higher amount of yarn is required here.
  • The speed and production of a high speed warping is very high.
  • Here simple flanged bobbin is used as beam.

Description of Different Control Systems in Warping

  1. Tension Control: Tension should not be low or high during warping. Because due to lower tension package will be unstable, entangled and snarling will occur. Whereas high tension will cause yarn breakage. The tension should be just and uniform throughout the process.
  2. Balloon Control: Balloon controlling is necessary so that the yarns does not entangled with one another. For this, yarn guides should be placed at right positions.
  3. Stop Motion: The m/c should stop itself if any yarn breakage occurs at any point. So stop motion system is necessary to control.
  4. Yarn Cleaner: Proper setting should be maintained to remove yarn fault
  5. Length Control: the Length of warp sheet should be controlled. It is done with a measuring roller in combination with a suitable counting device by stopping the device machine after winding pre-determined length of warp yarn onto the beam.
  6. Surface Speed: The surface speed of beam should be controlled specially when a large change in warp diameter is involved.
  7. Proper Yarn Density: In warp sheet the yarn ends/inch, means yarn density, is to be controlled. Because without proper yarn density the fabric will be uneven.
  8. Static Electricity: It is specially required in case of man-made fibres. It is controlled to avoid yarn entanglement. It is done by:  A)Chemical fiber finishes  B)Ionization of air C)Humidification of air.
  9. Traverse Control: In sectional warping traverse rate of beam should be controlled.
  10. Fly Control: In staple fibres lints, small trashes may cause problem by flying around the working area. So this fly should be controlled to have a pleasant working atmosphere.

Description of Different Faults in Warping and Their Remedies:

  1. Off Centre Warp: If beam or wraith is not set properly i.e. it is not centric due to carelessness this type of fault occurs.

Remedy: Beam or wraith should be placed proper

  1. Rigid or Uneven Warp Surface: This may occur if i) Yarn density [ends/inch] is very low ii)Different counts of yarns is wound on beam iii) Yarn density is uneven.

Remedy: yarn density and count should be maintained properly.

    3. Cross Ends: If occurs due to faulty knotting after end breakage. (Joining broken end with wrong end)

Remedy: Knotting and tension should be done carefully.

   4. Snarl Formation: Snarl form due to over tension, highly twisted yarn and careless operation.

Remedy: Tension should be kept proper and yarn twist should be as required.

   5, Hard/Soft Beam: If during winding yarn on being yarn tension is low or high soft and hard beam forms. It may also occur due to uneven pressure on drum or beam.

Remedy: Tension and pressure should be maintained even.

   6. End Missing: If yarn breakage occurs m/c should be stopped immediately. If such cannot be done the broken end of yarn cannot be found out. This is end missing problem.

Remedy: Stop motion system should be very active and m/c should be stopped immediately after end breakage.

    7. Haphazard Knotting: if various length of yarn is wound in creel packages then during beaming different end will finished in different time. So knotting would be in various places of the warp. This will haphazard knotting.

Remedy: In creel packages same length of yarns should be present so that all yarn finish at a certain place of warp.

   8. Length Variation: It may occur due to fault stop motion. It means if the stop motion system stops the m/c before winding required length of yarn on beam length variation occurs.

Remedy: Stop motion should be checked carefully.

Global Textile News

CAI maintains 2018-19 cotton

Estimate at 315 lakh bales

The Cotton Association of India (CAI) has retained its May estimate of the cotton crop for 2018-19 season that began on October 1, 2018, at 315…Read more

FESPA 2017 (German) press release

Colorjet Launching Tech Loaded Digital Textile Printer TXF with Japanese Technology at FESPA Hamburg 2017

Colorjet Launching Tech Loaded Digital Textile Printer TXF with Japanese Technology at FESPA Hamburg 2017   TXF printer offers speeds of up to 24 sq.…Read more

Vietnam National Textile and Garment Group

City to host textile industry expo

HCM CITY — The Vietnam Saigon Textile and Garment Industry/Fabric and Garment Accessories Expo (Saigon Tex 2017) that will showcase high-end machinery and equipment and…Read more

Deshpande urges PM

To slash GST rates

Revenue minister RV Deshpande on Sunday urged Prime Minister Narendra Modi to respond to the slowing economy by slashing goods and services tax (GST) rates,…Read more


Smriti Irani’s cotton campaign trends on Twitter

A year after the hashtag 'IWearHandloom' trended on Twitter, Union Textile minister Smriti irani is back at it. On Tuesday, she tweeted a selfie in a cotton…Read more

Revenue and its forecasts

Global Textile Dyes market 2017

Textile Dyes Market analyzed the Industry region, including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry growth rate etc. In the…Read more

 العرب اليوم -